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How well are water contaminants removed by distillation, membranes, carbon and UV-light?

An impossible question to answer, but based on assumptions and scientific tests, we constantly build data into the below Traffic Light table. The aim is to have updated knowledge of the contaminants that we commonly find in drinking water - what they are, what we know about them and how capable distillation, carbon filters and membrane filters (RO, NF, UF, MF) are to reduce/remove them from drinking water.

Do you know more than we do? Then please help us by sending us scientific information with references via the contact form.


Assumptions and how to read the table:

WaterStillar is using distillation to clean water into drinking water, at home. So we compare our's to sub counter RO-filters and normal broad spectre carbon filters and UV-units for homes. The quality and docuemnation in these filters varies and in most litterature the membranes tested are larger professional membranes. Contaminants are assumed to be retained by distillation if their vapor pressure is equal or lower to 53 mPa and at the same time have a boiling point (respectively melting point if there is no boiling point) of 140 °C or higher. These assumption are based on experimental data from Hanson,2004; Bills,1967 and Hoff,2019, whose retained contaminants have the threshold values mentioned above. Vapor pressure and boiling / melting temperature are the most critical parameters for contaminants, when separated per distillation.  Green is more than 90% removal. Yellow is btw 30-90% removal. Red is below 30% removal. WaterStillar is always a combination of non-pressurized distilation and a large carbon filter. This is why "Distillation" and "WaterStillar" differs in a few cases.

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